A true shining one comes and frees them from the net. The Angel punishes them for following the Flatterer and then puts them back on the right path.
The pilgrims meet an Atheist, who tells them Heaven and God do not exist, but Christian and Hopeful remember the shepherds and pay no attention to the man. Christian and Hopeful come to a place where a man named Wanton Professor is chained by the ropes of seven demons who take him to a shortcut to the Lake of Fire Hell. On the way, Christian and Hopeful meet a lad named Ignorance, who believes that he will be allowed into the Celestial City through his own good deeds rather than as a gift of God's grace. Christian and Hopeful meet up with him twice and try to persuade him to journey to the Celestial City in the right way.
Ignorance persists in his own way that he thinks will lead him into Heaven. After getting over the River of Death on the ferry boat of Vain Hope without overcoming the hazards of wading across it, Ignorance appears before the gates of Celestial City without a passport, which he would have acquired had he gone into the King's Highway through the Wicket Gate. The Lord of the Celestial City orders the shining ones angels to take Ignorance to one of the byways of Hell and throw him in. Christian and Hopeful make it through the dangerous Enchanted Ground a place where the air makes them sleepy and if they fall asleep, they never wake up into the Land of Beulah, where they ready themselves to cross the dreaded River of Death on foot to Mount Zion and the Celestial City.
Christian has a rough time of it because of his past sins wearing him down, but Hopeful helps him over, and they are welcomed into the Celestial City. They visit the same stopping places that Christian visited, with the addition of Gaius' Inn between the Valley of the Shadow of Death and Vanity Fair, but they take a longer time in order to accommodate marriage and childbirth for the four sons and their wives.
The hero of the story is Greatheart, a servant of the Interpreter, who is the pilgrims' guide to the Celestial City. The passage of years in this second pilgrimage better allegorizes the journey of the Christian life. By using heroines , Bunyan, in the Second Part, illustrates the idea that women, as well as men, can be brave pilgrims. Alexander M. Witherspoon, professor of English at Yale University , writes in a prefatory essay :. Part II, which appeared in , is much more than a mere sequel to or repetition of the earlier volume.
It clarifies and reinforces and justifies the story of Part I. The beam of Bunyan's spotlight is broadened to include Christian's family and other men, women, and children; the incidents and accidents of everyday life are more numerous, the joys of the pilgrimage tend to outweigh the hardships; and to the faith and hope of Part I is added in abundant measure that greatest of virtues, charity.
The two parts of The Pilgrim's Progress , in reality, constitute a whole, and the whole is, without doubt, the most influential religious book ever written in the English language.
This is exemplified by the frailness of the pilgrims of the Second Part—women, children, and physically and mentally challenged individuals—in contrast to the stronger pilgrims of the First Part. When Christiana's party leaves Gaius's Inn and Mr. Feeble-Mind lingers in order to be left behind, he is encouraged to accompany the party by Greatheart:. But brother I have it in commission, to comfort the feeble-minded, and to support the weak.
You must needs go along with us; we will wait for you, we will lend you our help, we will deny ourselves of some things, both opinionated and practical, for your sake; we will not enter into doubtful disputations before you, we will be made all things to you, rather than you shall be left behind. The pilgrims learn of Madame Bubble who created the Enchanted Ground and Forgetful Green, a place in the Valley of Humiliation where the flowers make other pilgrims forget about God's love. Feeble-Mind, and Mr. Ready-To-Halt come to Bypath-Meadow and, after much fight and difficulty, slay the cruel Giant Despair and the wicked Giantess Diffidence, and demolish Doubting Castle for Christian and Hopeful who were oppressed there.
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Despondency and his daughter named Much-Afraid from the castle's dungeons. When the pilgrims end up in the Land of Beulah, they cross over the River of Death by appointment. As a matter of importance to Christians of Bunyan's persuasion reflected in the narrative of The Pilgrim's Progress , the last words of the pilgrims as they cross over the River of Death are recorded.
The four sons of Christian and their families do not cross but remain for the support of the church in that place. Scholars have pointed out that Bunyan may have been influenced in the creation of places in The Pilgrim's Progress by his own surrounding environment. Albert Foster  describes the natural features of Bedfordshire that apparently turn up in The Pilgrim's Progress.
Vera Brittain in her thoroughly researched biography of Bunyan,  identifies seven locations that appear in the allegory. Other connections are suggested in books not directly associated with either John Bunyan or The Pilgrim's Progress. At least twenty-one natural or man-made geographical or topographical features from The Pilgrim's Progress have been identified—places and structures John Bunyan regularly would have seen as a child and, later, in his travels on foot or horseback. The entire journey from The City of Destruction to the Celestial City may have been based on Bunyan's own usual journey from Bedford , on the main road that runs less than a mile behind his cottage in Elstow , through Ampthill , Dunstable and St Albans , to London.
In the same sequence as these subjects appear in The Pilgrim's Progress , the geographical realities are as follows:.
The allegory of this book has antecedents in a large number of Christian devotional works that speak of the soul's path to Heaven , from the Lyke-Wake Dirge forward. Bunyan's allegory stands out above his predecessors because of his simple and effective prose style, steeped in Biblical texts and cadences. Bunyan's inspiration?
Due to many similarities—some more definite than others—it could be argued that he had access to Dante's Commedia. The Pilgrim's Progress may, therefore, be a distillation of the entire 'pilgrimage' that the 14th Century Italian penned. Because of the widespread longtime popularity of The Pilgrim's Progress , Christian's hazards—whether originally from Bunyan or borrowed by him from the Bible—the "Slough of Despond", the "Hill Difficulty", "Valley of the Shadow of Death", "Doubting Castle", and the "Enchanted Ground", his temptations the wares of "Vanity Fair" and the pleasantness of "By-Path Meadow" , his foes "Apollyon" and "Giant Despair" , and the helpful stopping places he visits the "House of the Interpreter", the "House Beautiful", the "Delectable Mountains", and the "Land of Beulah" have become commonly used phrases proverbial in English.
For example, "One has one's own Slough of Despond to trudge through. The Pilgrim's Progress was much more popular than its predecessors. Bunyan's plain style breathes life into the abstractions of the anthropomorphized temptations and abstractions that Christian encounters and with whom he converses on his course to Heaven. Samuel Johnson said that "this is the great merit of the book, that the most cultivated man cannot find anything to praise more highly, and the child knows nothing more amusing.
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It was published over the years of the Popish Plot — and ten years before the Glorious Revolution of , and it shows the influence of John Foxe 's Acts and Monuments. Bunyan presents a decrepit and harmless giant to confront Christian at the end of the Valley of the Shadow of Death that is explicitly named "Pope":.
But by this place Christian went without much danger, whereat I somewhat wondered; but I have learnt since, that Pagan has been dead many a day; and as for the other, though he be yet alive, he is by reason of age, and also of the many shrewd brushes that he met with in his younger dayes, grown so crazy and stiff in his joynts, that he can now do little more than sit in his Caves mouth, grinning at Pilgrims as they go by, and biting his nails, because he cannot come at them. But as in other fairs , some one Commodity is as the chief of all the fair , so the Ware of Rome and her Merchandize is greatly promoted in this fair : Only our English Nation, with some others, have taken a dislike thereat.
In the Second Part, while Christiana and her group of pilgrims led by Greatheart stay for some time in Vanity, the city is terrorized by a seven-headed beast  which is driven away by Greatheart and other stalwarts. Owens notes about the woman that governs the beast: "This woman was believed by Protestants to represent Antichrist, the Church of Rome. In a posthumously published treatise, Of Antichrist, and his Ruine , Bunyan gave an extended account of the rise and shortly expected fall of Antichrist.
Not long after its initial publication, The Pilgrim's Progress was being translated into multiple languages starting with Dutch in , German in and Swedish in , as well as over eighty African languages during the colonial period. Hong Xiuquan , the leader of the Christianity-inspired Taiping Rebellion , declared that the book was his favorite reading.
Little did the missionaries who distributed The Pilgrim's Progress know that the foreigners would appropriate it to make sense of their own experiences. Heaven was often a place designed to resemble what they had gone through in life. For example, in South Africa, a version was written where the injustices which took place in that country were reformulated. The Third Part of the Pilgrim's Progress was written by an anonymous author; beginning in , it was published with Bunyan's authentic two parts. It continued to be republished with Bunyan's work until The book was the basis of a condensed radio adaptation, originally presented in and starring John Gielgud , which included, as background music, several excerpts from Vaughan Williams' orchestral works.
The radio version was newly recorded by Hyperion Records in , in a performance conducted by Matthew Best. Each is accompanied by a poem, either by Bernard Barton or by Miss Landon herself.
These plates are as follows:. In Twain's later work Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , the titular character mentions The Pilgrim's Progress as he describes the works of literature in the Grangerfords' library. Twain uses this to satirize the Protestant Southern aristocracy. Cummings makes numerous references to it in his prose work, The Enormous Room. Progressive thinkers have replaced the footpath by a railroad, and pilgrims may now travel under steam power.
The journey is considerably faster, but somewhat more questionable. Nathaniel Hawthorne 's novel The Scarlet Letter makes reference to it by way of the author John Bunyan with a metaphor comparing a main character's eyes with the fire depicted in the entrance to Hell in The Pilgrim's Progress. Standfast , which also takes its title from one of Bunyan's characters. Alan Moore , in his League of Extraordinary Gentlemen , enlists The Pilgrim's Progress protagonist, Christian, as a member of the earliest version of this group, Prospero's Men , having become wayward on his journey during his visit in Vanity Fair, stepping down an alleyway and found himself in London in the s, and unable to return to his homeland.
This group disbanded in after Prospero vanished into the Blazing World ; however, some parts of the text seem to imply that Christian resigned from Prospero's League before its disbanding and that Christian traveled to the Blazing World before Prospero himself. The apparent implication is that; within the context of the League stories; the Celestial City Christian seeks and the Blazing World may in fact be one and the same. In Louisa May Alcott 's Little Women , the protagonist Jo and her sisters read it at the outset of the novel, and try to follow the good example of Bunyan's Christian.
Throughout the novel, the main characters refer many times to Pilgrim's Progress and liken the events in their own lives to the experiences of the pilgrims.
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A number of chapter titles directly reference characters and places from Pilgrim's Progress. The strip ran from 26 June to 18 December In it, the protagonist Mr. Bunion is constantly frustrated in his attempts to improve his life by ridding himself of his burdonsome valise, "Dull Care". It is an allegory of C.
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Lewis' own journey from a religious childhood to a pagan adulthood in which he rediscovers his Christian God. The protagonist of the semi-autobiographical novel is John Bullock, the quintessential English soldier during World War I. The character of Billy Pilgrim in Kurt Vonnegut 's novel, Slaughterhouse-5 : The Children's Crusade , is a clear homage to a similar journey to enlightenment experienced by Christian, although Billy's journey leads him to an existential acceptance of life and of a fatalist human condition.
Vonnegut's parallel to The Pilgrim's Progress is deliberate and evident in Billy's surname.
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