Litany of Loreto in Context : University of Dayton, Ohio
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Saint Veronica Giuliani expressed how Mary's suffering in Calvary united her heart with that of Jesus as she suffered each torment along with him.
By the 18th century, the continued growth of Marian veneration had emphasized the role of the Virgin Mary in salvation. It was through Mary's intercession, through compassion for the hosts, at the marriage feast of Cana, that Jesus worked his first miracle. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "From the most ancient times the Blessed Virgin has been honored with the title of 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs. Roman Catholic views of the Virgin Mary as refuge and advocate of sinners, protector from dangers and powerful intercessor with her Son, Jesus are expressed in prayers, artistic depictions, theology, and popular and devotional writings, as well as in the use of religious articles and images.
The artistic depictions of the Virgin of Mercy portray the role of Mary as the protector of Christians, as she shelters them under her mantle. The Virgin of Mercy depictions sometimes include arrows raining from above, with the Virgin's cloak protecting the people. Catholics have continued to seek the protection of Mary as the Mother of Sorrows and relied on her intercession as the Queen of Heaven since the Middle Ages.
The order now focuses on the role of the Virgin Mary as the protector of captives and prisoners.
The depictions of Our Lady of Navigators arose from the prayers and devotions of Portuguese navigators, who saw the Virgin Mary as their protector during storms and other hazards. Prayers to Our Lady of Navigators are well known in South America, specially Brazil , where its February 2 feast is an official holiday.
Both Miguel Hidalgo and Emiliano Zapata flew flags of Our Lady of Guadalupe as their protector, and Zapata's men wore the Guadalupan image around their necks and on their sombreros.
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The prayer, the Memorare begins: "Remember O most gracious Virgin Mary, that never was it known that anyone who fled to Thy protection, implored Thy help or sought Thy intercession, was left unaided. Saint Louis de Montfort taught that God appointed Mary as "the dispenser of grace", and to receive grace from God, one can receive it through the hands of the Blessed Virgin, as a child receives from a mother. Pope Francis has said that her "entire life was contained in her song of praise" of the greatness of the Lord.
Francis goes on to confide that at Marian shrines he likes to. I pray for a childlike trust, the trust of the poor and simple who know that their mother is there, and that they have a place in her heart. Do not let it disturb your heart. Am I not here, I who have the honour to be your mother?
The Church's magisterium has identified four teachings about Mary as dogmas of faith. These include belief in her virginal conception of Jesus , taught by the First Council of Nicaea in The perpetual virginity of Mary was taught by the ecumenical Second Council of Constantinople in , which described her as "ever virgin", and was expressed also, by the Lateran synod of October ,  The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception states that from the first moment of her existence Mary was without original sin.
The dogma of the Assumption of Mary , defined by Pope Pius XII in , states that, at the end of her earthly life, she was assumed into heavenly glory body and soul. In the first three centuries the emphasis was on the veneration of martyrs , as a continuation of the yearly celebrations of their death, e. In the Eastern traditions Mariology developed through liturgical veneration within the framework of the feasts relative to the Incarnation.
The Roman Catholic liturgy is one of the most important elements of Marian devotions.
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Many Marian feasts are superior to the feast days of the saints. The liturgical texts of the Marian feast days all link Mary to Jesus Christ. Mary, as the mother of Jesus, is documented in Roman catacombs : paintings from the first half of the 2nd century show her holding the Christ Child. These catacombs also have a depiction of the Annunciation.siolaurala.ga
Life of the Blessed Virgin, First Edition
This new freedom also permitted literary development of the veneration of Mary, Hippolytus of Rome being an early example. Marian veneration was theologically sanctioned with the adoption of the title Theotokos at the Council of Ephesus in The earliest known churches dedicated to Mary were built shortly after that date, among these the Church of the Seat of Mary Kathisma near Mar Elias Monastery , between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. In the early Middle Ages, veneration of Mary was particularly expressed in monasteries, especially those of the Benedictines.
Chants such as Ave Maris Stella and the Salve Regina emerged and became staples of monastic plainsong. The Carolingians encouraged Marian piety by the celebration of Marian feast days and the dedication of churches in her honor. From the year onward more and more churches, including many of Europe's greatest cathedrals were dedicated to Mary.
The 12th and 13th centuries saw an extraordinary growth of the cult of the Virgin in Western Europe, inspired in part by the writings of theologians such as Bernard of Clairvaux. At the height of the pilgrimage movement in the 11th and 12th centuries, hundreds of people were traveling almost constantly from one Marian shrine to the next.
By the 14th century, Mary had become greatly popular as a compassionate intercessor and protector of humanity, and during the great plagues such as the Black Death her help was sought against the just judgment of God. By the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation had introduced a tide against Marian venerations in Europe.
The ensuing Marian pilgrimages have continued to date and the Marian Basilica on Tepeyac Hill remains the most visited Catholic shrine in the world. Marian culture continues to develop within the Catholic Church. In this document, which was subtitled For the Right Ordering and Development of Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary Paul VI not only discussed the history of Marian devotions but also overviewed their rationale and provided suggestions for their future direction, emphasising their theological and pastoral value.
Roman Catholic devotions have relied on the writings of numerous saints throughout history who have attested to the central role of Mary in God's plan of salvation. Early saints included Irenaeus of Lyons in the 2nd century who was perhaps the earliest of the Church Fathers to write systematically about the Virgin Mary, and he set out a forthright account of her role in the economy of salvation.
In the Middle Ages, Bernhard of Clairvaux highlighted her virginity and humility as the basis for her veneration. His approach of "total consecration to Jesus Christ through Mary" had a strong impact on Marian devotion both in popular piety and in the spirituality of religious institutes. The earliest Christian feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. By the 7th century a feast dedicated to Mary was celebrated just before Christmas in the churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy. Catherine of Siena , adopted the custom of dedicating Saturday to Mary.
These may include the singing of Marian anthems, crowning of statues of Mary with floral wreaths, readings from scriptures , a sermon , and or presentation by local choirs. The Roman Catholic Church celebrates three Marian solemnities which are also holy days of obligation in many countries during the liturgical year  in liturgical order :.
Among the other prominent Marian feast days and memorials in the General Roman Calendar of the Catholic Church are: .
Life of the Blessed Virgin, First Edition
A large number of titles to honor Mary or ask for her intercession are used by Roman Catholics. Titles used to refer to the Virgin Mary throughout history, at times reflect the changing attitudes towards her. Domina lady , Regina queen and Stella Maris star of the sea are some of the early titles of Mary, of which Regina is the earliest. Domina and Sella Maris are found in Jerome who perhaps originated the etymology of Mary as Stella Maris in the 5th century. While the early emphasis in Stella Maris was on Mary as the Star that bore Christ, by the 9th century, the attention had focused on Mary herself, as indicated in the hymn Ave Maris Stella.
By the 11th century, Mary herself had emerged as the star that acted as a guiding light. Among the most prominent Roman Catholic Marian titles are: . The Liturgy of the Hours includes several offices to be sung, including Compline. At the close of this office, one of four Marian antiphons is sung.
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