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See details for delivery est. They integrated the described symptoms into adequate diagnoses, developed meaningful case conceptualizations, and planned satisfactory treatments. We assessed the effects of university training, postgraduate psychotherapist training, and clinical experience on expertise in clinical psychology. A central characteristic of our approach was to ensure that the expertise in our research group comprised competencies in the assessment of cognitive processes as well as expertise in clinical psychology and psychotherapy.
Thus, our research group consisted of both cognitive scientists and researchers from clinical psychology. This collaboration enabled the construction of relevant materials that partly bridged the gap between directly assessing knowledge about facts and concepts and indirectly assessing procedural knowledge for solving complex and dynamically changing clinical cases. We consider this multi-method approach to be a clear advantage in expertise research in domains like clinical psychology.
Knowledge about facts, concepts, and procedures has been shown to be one of the main factors discerning experts and novices in different fields e. Thus, our first study aimed at assessing these types of knowledge at different levels of experience, i. A strong knowledge base is a prerequisite for clinical expertise; however, psychotherapy also includes the ability to deal with complex and dynamically evolving information.
We examined these latter aspects in a second study by means of a case-based interview. Taking this approach, we tried to complement a more traditional way of analyzing knowledge with a form of assessment that simulates the high demands psychotherapists face in their work. While expertise research often indirectly deduces the available knowledge, in our research we additionally employed direct measurements of knowledge.
In summary, our studies revealed that expertise development up to and including the level of trainee therapists perfectly mirrors the organization of the university curriculum in psychology and therapist training in Germany. This demonstrates the positive effects of academic studies and subsequent professional training on expertise development. However, at the level of experienced therapists, the obtained picture is not so bright.
Our results point to a decrease in knowledge and variability in clinical competencies. In the following paragraphs, we discuss the results of the two studies with respect to our research questions cf. Introduction in more detail.
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Effects of studying psychology at the university on expertise Hypothesis 1: Consequently, students at these levels outperformed participants of the other levels on these variables. Later on in their course of studies, students who chose clinical psychology as their main focus showed clear improvements in clinical knowledge. They also were able to provide correct diagnoses in short case studies. However, the case-based interview revealed that they failed to integrate information in a complex and dynamically changing situation leading to incomplete diagnoses and inadequate treatment planning.
Effects of postgraduate therapist training on expertise Hypothesis 2: In both of our studies, trainee therapists achieved the best results on nearly all measured variables. In particular, our results indicate a further increase in clinical knowledge and competencies. Trainee therapists provided high quality diagnoses, coherent case conceptualizations, and adequate treatment planning.
We conclude that the training program is very successful in substantially enhancing clinical competencies. At the level of these experienced therapists, our results point to a decrease both in basic psychological knowledge and knowledge of how to apply basics to clinical. Surprisingly, we observed even some decrease in clinical knowledge in contrast to Hypothesis 3, which stated that experienced therapists show more clinical knowledge than the less experienced groups. The decrease of clinical knowledge at the level of experienced therapists seems to contradict findings in other domains, in particular medicine e.
The experienced psychotherapists generally provided correct diagnoses in the short and simple structured case studies of Study 1. However, regarding the case-based interviews in Study 2 a mixed picture emerged for the experienced therapists: This finding is in line with studies showing large variance in therapy outcomes across therapists e. Several limitations of our empirical investigations should be noted: Thus, compared to the sample of trainee therapists, the experienced therapists had completed a less stringent therapist training after completing their university studies.
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The participants in our studies still graduated with a diploma degree. Thus, the findings cannot be generalized directly to the behavior in such a setting. However, further studies are needed to replicate our results with a bigger sample size. Similar to research in other domains, our studies revealed that in the domain of clinical psychology experience does not automatically translate into expertise Eells et al. Expertise can only develop if the future expert engages in a substantial amount of deliberate practice Ericsson et al.
So, how can we ensure that practice and experience is transformed into expertise in the domain of clinical psychology? Our findings imply that the approach of combining standardized university studies in psychology with a focus on clinical psychology followed by a substantial theory based practical training in psychotherapy is very successful.
This training is characterized by linking advanced theoretical clinical courses with clinical practice. Clinical courses held by practitioners with a strong scientific background are taught in a problem-based way e. Inert knowledge is understood to be theoretical in nature and not applicable to practical problems. In order to stay licensed, all psychotherapists in Germany have to participate in continuing professional development classes.
However, this continuing education seems to be successful only in some cases. One explanation may be that practitioners need to be able to identify areas where there is a need for improvement in order to find and sign up for appropriate courses.
The book is rich in illustrative examples and helpful ways to think about CBT interventions. I found myself constantly stimulated, as well as challenged, to make adaptations to my approach as a CBT therapist. As the DSM-V stumbles, this book presents the exciting possibility that we now have enough transdiagnostic knowledge to create a categorization system that will help practitioners select interventions based on their usefulness in targeting identified processes of change. The details could be mistaken, but this is a bold and creative step forward that deserves the attention of practitioners and researchers alike.
Hayes, PhD, foundation professor and director of clinical training at University of Nevada and cofounder of acceptance and commitment therapy ACT Follow this road map and you will likely never need to consult another 'how to conceptualize my treatment approach' map again! This volume moves the promise of transdiagnostic practice into the realm of possibility by showing how the latest research on transdiagnostic mechanisms informs individualized, case formulation-driven approaches to treatment planning, implementation, and assessment.
Rochelle Frank and Joan Davidson have written a very timely, important, and useful book that will be of use to clinicians, researchers, and students of mental health. Anyone who is interested in understanding how the latest research on mechanisms that cut across diagnostic boundaries can inform a practical, evidence-based guide to treatment will benefit from reading this book.
This book is well written with clinical acumen and a solid link to the empirical literature on comorbidity. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. Editors: Peter Sturmey Peter Sturmey. Hardcover ISBN: Paperback ISBN: Imprint: Academic Press. Published Date: 29th January Page Count: For regional delivery times, please check When will I receive my book?
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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Makes theories of functional analysis accessible to a wide range of mental health professionals Reviews behavioral assessment methods and strategies for case formulation Offers readers a practical, organized, data-based means of understanding psychiatric conditions for intervening effectively and measuring positive change.
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