ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774


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A good rule of thumb is that series have a conventional name and are intentional creations , on the part of the author or publisher. For now, avoid forcing the issue with mere "lists" of works possessing an arbitrary shared characteristic, such as relating to a particular place. Avoid series that cross authors, unless the authors were or became aware of the series identification eg.


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Also avoid publisher series, unless the publisher has a true monopoly over the "works" in question. So, the Dummies guides are a series of works. But the Loeb Classical Library is a series of editions, not of works.

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Home Groups Talk Zeitgeist. I Agree This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and if not signed in for advertising. Your use of the site and services is subject to these policies and terms. Series description. Related places Italy.

Italy (1939)

How do series work? After the final Roman conquest, carried out by Manius Curius Dentatus in the late 3rd century BC, the village became a strategic point in the early Italian road network, dominating the "salt" track that linked Rome to the Adriatic Sea through the Apennines. Many lands of Reate and Amiternum were allocated to Romans.

From the outset, Sabines were offered Roman citizenship but without voting rights, until in BC they gained full citizenship, were incorporated into two new tribes. Curius Dentatus drained a large portion of the lake by diverting the Velino river into the Nera; the wide area once occupied by the lake turned into a fertile plain. Following Roman customs, the land was split into characteristic square allotments. The town itself underwent significant development, being re-organised according to typical Roman urban standards, was fortified with strong walls.

A stone bridge was laid across the Velino river, a large viaduct was built to bring goods from the Via Salaria directly to Rieti's southern gate. Roman Reate receives a number of mentions in Latin literature, thanks to its flourishing soil, its valued assets, some peculiarities of the surroundings. Cicero , for instance, describes the tensions between Reate and Interamna following the lake drainage, refers to the country houses that his friend Q. Axius owned in the plain.

One of the most important Sabine families that gained success in Rome was the Gens Flavia, from which Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus descended; the Reatin poet and writer Marcus Terentius Varro was born in BC and he is referred to as the father of Roman erudition. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire Rieti suffered destruction by Barbarians, but never ceased to be an important gastaldate during the Lombard domination, as part of the Duchy of Spoleto.


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  • Under the Franks , it was the county capital. Pope Gregory IX celebrated canonized St. Dominic in Rieti.

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    After the Papal seat had been moved to Avignon , Rieti was conquered by the King of Naples , while inner struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines broke out. In it was won back by Cardinal Albornoz , it became a feudal seigneury of the Alfani family within the Papal States.

    More of the surrounding plain was drained in the following century, but this led to confrontation with the neighboring Terni. Rieti was province capital of the Papal States from to After the unification of Italy , it was part of Umbria , being annexed to Lazio in It became the provincial capital on January 2, ; the ancient Sabine and Roman city was crowded with buildings, including baths.

    Only scarce remains were found during excavations in 19th and 20th century: the foundations of a large temple, the stone floor of the main square, walls from private houses, concrete vaults and pottery items; the most striking remains are the stone bridge across the viaduct. Piazza San Rufo is traditionally considered to be the exact centre of Italy. Other sights include: Rieti Cathedral : Construction started in over a pre-existing basilica, was consecrated in and entirely rebuilt in , it has a stunning Romanesque bell tower from The entrance portico leads to a 13th-century portal; the interior, on Latin cross plan with one nave and two aisles , has Baroque decorations, including a St.

    Barbara sculpted by Giannantonio M.

    Toto of Nepi

    Ordination Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies. The process and ceremonies of ordination vary by denomination. One, in preparation for, or, undergoing the process of ordination is sometimes called an ordinand ; the liturgy used at an ordination is sometimes referred to as an ordination. The tradition of the ordained monastic community began with the Buddha , who established orders of monks and of nuns; the procedure of ordination in Buddhism is laid down in the Vinaya and Patimokkha or Pratimoksha scriptures.

    There exist three intact ordination lineages nowadays in which one can receive an ordination according to the Buddha's teachings: Dharmaguptaka Lineage Mulasarvastivadin Lineage Theravada Lineage Saicho requested that the Japanese government allow the construction of a Mahayana ordination platform. Pabbajja is an ordination procedure for novice Buddhist monks in the Theravada tradition; the legitimacy of ordained nuns has become a significant topic of discussion in recent years.

    Texts passed down in every Buddhist tradition record that Gautama Buddha created an order of ordained nuns, but the tradition has died out in some Buddhist traditions such as Theravada Buddhism , while remaining strong in others such as Chinese Buddhism. In the Tibetan lineage, which follows the Mulasarvastivadin lineage, the lineage of ordained nuns was not brought to Tibet by the Indian Vinaya masters, hence there is no rite for the ordination of full nuns; however th 14th Dalai Lama has endeavored for many years to improve this situation.

    Although the general tenor was that full ordination was overdue, the Dalai Lama presented a pre-drafted statement saying that more time was required to reach a decision, thus nullifying the intentions of the congress. Although those ordained within this organisation are called'monks' and'nuns' within the organisation, wear the robes of traditional Tibetan monks and nuns, in terms of traditional Buddhism they are neither ordained monks and nuns nor are they novice monks and nuns.

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    Kelsang Gyatso's ordination has been publicly criticised by Geshe Tashi Tsering as going against the core teachings of Buddhism and against the teachings of Tsongkhapa , the founder of the Gelugpa school from which Kelsang Gyatso was expelled Ordination is one of the seven sacraments , variously called holy orders or cheirotonia.

    Apostolic succession is considered an essential and necessary concept for ordination, in the belief that all ordained clergy are ordained by bishops who were ordained by other bishops tracing back to bishops ordained by the Apostles who were ordained by Christ, the great High Priest , who conferred his priesthood upon his Apostles. There are three "degrees" of ordination: deacon and bishop. Both bishops and presbyters have authority to celebrate the Eucharist. In common use, the term priest, when unqualified, refers to the rank of presbyter , whereas presbyter is used in rites of ordination and other places where a technical and precise term is required.

    Ordination of a bishop is performed by several bishops; the ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration.

    Many ancient sources specify that at least three bishops are necessary to consecrate another, e. Verona Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto , with , inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region, it is the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1, km2 and has a population of , inhabitants, it is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheater built by the Romans.

    One theory is. With the conquest of the Valley of the Po , the Veronese territory became Roman. Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC. It was classified as a municipium in 49 BC, when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important. Stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in , the Gothic domination of Italy began.

    Theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there, it remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War , except for a single day in , when the Byzantine officer Artabazes made an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city. In Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when the Goths were overthrown that they surrendered it.

    In , it was taken by Alboin , King of the Lombards , in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second most important city. There, Alboin was killed by his wife in ; the dukes of Treviso resided there. Adalgisus, son of Desiderius , in made his last desperate resistance in Verona to Charlemagne , who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom. Verona became the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of the counts of San Bonifacio.

    From to the two Berengarii resided there. In he caused the slaughter of 11, Paduans on the plain of Verona.

    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774
    ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774 ITALY AND HER INVADERS.VOLUME VII.THE FRANKISH INVASIONS.A.D. 744-774

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